RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP DISTURBANCE AND DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND FUNCTIONING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS
Nyer M, Farabaugh A, Fehling K, Soskin D, Holt D, Papakostas GI, Pedrelli P, Fava M, Pisoni A, Vitolo O, Mischoulon D. Relationship between sleep disturbance. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP DISTURBANCE AND DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND FUNCTIONING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS. PDF | This paper focuses on several aspects of the relationship between sleep and depression, with particular attention to objective factors and.
Despite the results not reaching statistical significance, there may be a trend for students with depressive symptoms and SD to have more hyperarousal compared to those without SD.
Interestingly, students with SD did not score significantly higher on the BAI as a whole, despite scoring significantly higher on the ASQ, both in frequency and intensity totals Table 3. Nonetheless, students with SD scored approximately five points greater on the BAI, compared to students without SD, which may be clinically meaningful and is consistent with the ASQ findings. Although the case-control design cannot establish causality, it is possible that SD may be reflective of a general level of hyperarousal during the day.
Recent evidence suggests that hyperarousal may represent a common factor linking insomnia and fear-based anxiety disorders.
Depression and Sleep Disturbances: Common Bedfellows
For example, Moo-Estrella et al. In nondepressed college populations, students classified as poor-quality sleepers endorsed more problems with physical and psychological health. This is in contrast to findings from Taylor et al. Likewise, Moo-Estrella et al. These were also students who were willing to volunteer for a mental health screening and thus we may not have captured those with the full range of depressive symptoms.
Our study has several limitations. First, we used only the BDI sleep item 16 as a sleep measure. The study would be strengthened by the use of other validated sleep instruments, as well as more objective measures of sleep quality. Finally, our selected population of college students may limit the generalizability of the results.
Replication in other populations and also in different samples of the college students is warranted to ensure the current findings are not sample specific. Our findings suggest that poor sleep in college students with symptoms of depression should be a target of therapeutic intervention both proactively and as a residual depressive symptom.
SD represents an under-diagnosed and undertreated problem: In another study by the same group, the shorter acting benzodiazapine agonist, zolpidem, did not separate from placebo on measures of response, [ 42 ] yet showed significant beneficial effects on cognitive and physical functioning, as measured by the CPFQ, which may be applicable to the SD subgroup with greater functional impairment captured in the present study.
The relationship between sleep disturbance and depression.
The need to target SD in college students is also underscored by increasing rates of prescriptions for serotonergic antidepressants, [ 43 ] since common side effects of these medications include insomnia and cognitive symptoms. These findings warrant replication in other populations. Acknowledgments Contract grant sponsor: Footnotes Conflict of interest Maren Nyer, Ph. Paola Pedrelli, PhD reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.
He has a minority share in equity holdings at Compellis. Angela Pisoni, BA reports no financial relationships with commercial interests. He has received honoraria for consulting, speaking, and writing from Pamlab, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association; Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: Prodromal symptoms in primary major depressive disorder. Insomnia as a predictor of depression: Residual symptoms in depressed patients who respond acutely to fluoxetine. Thus, while the current analyses were a cross-sectional look at both disturbed sleep and depression, additional work needs to be done to determine the prevalence of specific sleep disorders and their association with depression in Mexican Americans.
Furthermore, the independent and cumulative link between sleep disturbance and depression on cognitive impairment in Mexican Americans should be examined. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The other authors have indicated no financial conflicts of interest. The association between chronic diseases and depressive symptomatology in older Mexican Americans.
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