examine the impact of gender role stereotyping on the image of the dental hygiene . qualified, safe and ethical patient care, and also fair access to equitable . determining social patterns which organise gender relations in a work setting. dentists, the manifestation, description and analysis of gender stereotypes and the study above-mentioned relation is common stereotypical opinions such as: Woman of the women dentists think that housework (husband, children) effects their patient. The number of percent depends on the clinic, clinic's price-list, the . Other research also shows that female dentists see fewer patients annually.9 The .. of gender stereotypes for the dentist–patient relationship.
Although cohorts of predominantly female dentists are only beginning to enter the workforce and, thus, it is difficult to predict the long-term effects, some trends are evident: Thus, the profession may shift toward less entrepreneurship, more urbanization and, possibly, fewer clinical hours available to the population as a result of feminization. With the ultimate goal of excellence in patient care, this may entail increases in student enrolment, formal incentives for practice relocation to rural communities, more business education and policies to modify advanced education and training for women with children.
This knowledge, although still not robust, is relevant for policy, educational institutions and professional governing bodies. Introduction Dentistry is a profession dominated by men. Some speculate that feminization will have significant implications in terms of labour supply, practice characteristics and professional ideals. How will this affect patient care? Despite minimal data in Canada, a literature review highlights important areas, including impacts on work hours, practice models, professional incomes, the dentist—patient relationship, clinical philosophies, specialty practice, academia and leadership.
Demographics Inthe proportion of female dentists in Canada ranged from Annual data for multiyear comparisons were not available, nor were provincial data on the gender of foreign-trained dentists graduating from Canadian institutions.
The average length of the career of a female dentist in Canada is 20 years v. Other research also shows that female dentists see fewer patients annually. Adams2 reported that marital status and children may influence the observed difference in work hours between the sexes. Her Ontario study of dentists found that women aged 25—37 work 3.
This situation is also observed in pharmacy, which has also seen an influx of women, with more women working for hospitals and corporate pharmacies than independent practice. No differences were found in terms of income or number of procedures per patient. A US study10 reported no differences between male and female dentists in the number of treated patients with insurance.
Clinical Philosophies Evidence suggests that male and female dentists vary in their approach to clinical practice. A number of studies show that compliance with infection control is different: Female dentists have been found to refer patients more frequently: The distribution of women in specialties is also unequal, with few women choosing oral and maxillofacial surgery OMFS or endodontics. The same survey found that marriage rates among female OMFS practitioners had decreased and divorce rates increased.
A report on medical specialists in Switzerland26 indicated that gender was the strongest factor influencing specialty choice, with women underrepresented in surgical specialties. When selecting a specialty, female dental students are more highly influenced by location and proximity to family. Most women undertake postgraduate dental education before having children Reduced flexibility in marital partnerships may contribute to fewer female specialists.
One survey reported that half of male dentists v. Although the rate of publication by women has been increasing sinceit does not reflect the number of women entering academia or the workforce. A review of websites of Canadian dental organizations also reveals that few leadership positions—on boards of directors, association councils or executive committees—are held by women.
In the US, male and female dental faculty do not differ in terms of hours worked per week, time spent on research or available grant support.Gender Roles in Relationships? - PUBLIC INTERVIEWS
Women perceive the work environment to be less welcoming and report more sexual harassment Female faculty are less likely to be married or have a partner A study of medical faculty30 reported similar findings.
Several organizations and initiatives e. A quarter to a third report that there is room for improvement and that policies are in place in support of female faculty: Of the 10 Canadian dental schools, only 1 Laval University has had a female dean — Whether this has major implications for dentistry is unknown.
The effects of feminization are unclear, as current data are not robust enough to draw conclusions.
The implications of gender stereotypes for the dentist-patient relationship.
With many variables at play, studies controlling for such issues as age, marital status, children, ethnicity, owner v. Nonetheless, this literature review has uncovered similar findings across a number of studies: Thus, the profession may potentially shift in a direction that involves less entrepreneurship, more urbanization and, possibly, less patient inflow.
In turn, this could mean future increases in student enrolment, formal incentives to engage in rural practice, more business education and policies to modify advanced education and training for women with children, to redress pay inequity and to assess institutional practices and policies.
Future research should include surveys of Canadian dentists to identify differences in work patterns; surveys of Canadian dental students to determine career goals and barriers; and focus groups, as elsewhere,13 to identify barriers faced by female dentists in clinical practice, academia and leadership and to identify solutions. These studies will be of importance for deans, senior administration and governing or regulatory bodies as they manage the potential changes associated with the gender shift.
Some may assume that some dental procedures require a certain amount of man-power, this kind of mindset would lead dental patients to believe that female dentists lack in certain fields of dentistry. Discrimination goes both ways, male dentists could be said to be less esthetically aware than females when concerning conservative dentistry.
Religion can also play a role in gender preference. It's believed that some Muslim women, in particular, do not consult with their physician due their gender therefore going on without proper medical treatment. In certain countries, this is said to be a legitimate reason for refusing medical care based on religious belief.
This sends the message that patients who refuse dental treatment solely based on the fact of their dentists gender to be labeled as sexist even though it is the patients belief.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences
This study focused on answering three main questions: Is there a gender preference in dental care, does the patient's gender affect their choice of dentist and lastly, does patient's age have an association toward the preference of the dentist's gender. The main objective is to identify whether patients gender or age plays a role in gender stereotyping, and the comparison of male and female dentists in relation to overall treatment.
The specific objectives are whether the age or gender of the patient affects how they react to dental care according to the dentist gender as well as how they perform during the treatment process.
Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional-hospital based study in the Academy Dental Teaching Hospital specialized dental hospital, belonged to the University of Medical Science and Technology, Faculty of Dentistry, located in El-Emtidad area in Khartoum locality-Khartoum state. The study duration was from November to April The Study population consisted of male and female adult patients over 18 years attended outpatient clinics for follow-up or new dental complaint.
Patients came for the first dental visit in their life, disables or elderly uncooperative were excluded. Non-probability purposeful sampling technique was use to select eligible participants during the period of the study. A self-administered questionnaire including questions about demographic data. Other questions centered on specific criteria's that focused on patient's feelings toward the dentist.
Questions were closed-ended in which the patients choose one of three answers: Male dentist, female dentist or no difference and age of dentist if affecting their perception toward treatment, the questionnaire then went into more detail by asking if they preferred a specific dentist gender to treat them. They were also asked by whom they felt more comfortable with; during the treatment period.
The questionnaire was filled by selected patients before starting their dental treatment at outpatient clinic, the purposes of the study explained to eligible patients and were requested to participate voluntary with a written informed consent.
The questionnaire was pretested in the Arabic language by 25 randomly selected patients to ensure comprehensibility, reliability, relevant and accuracy in the Sudan context. Cronbach's alpha test showed the reliability coefficient of 0. These 25 questionnaires were not included in the final study. Descriptive statistic of the results was displayed in the form of tables and figures.
Results From descriptive statistics of the results, the data was displayed in the form of tables and figures. Gender distribution of the study was an equal number of male and females while the age of the participants showed a higher percentage being between the ages on years.
Document Details | Gender Stereotypes in Dental Care: A Cross-sectional Study
There was no specific preference towards dentist's gender the majority of patients selected no difference [Figure 1]. When it came to patients opinions of which dentist asked more personal questions? There is the statistical significant difference between male and female dentist where it goes toward female asking more personal questions, but still The result stated that a higher number of patients felt that neither dentist gender expected them to withstand pain without complaint.
The majority of patients perceived female dentists as both; explaining their diagnosis and treatment in more detail, and having more patience during procedures.