INTERSPECIFIC RELATIONSHIP by Sara Luengo on Prezi
Different types of interspecific interactions have different effects on the two two or more species are called interspecific interactions—inter- means "between. Also, many species in predator-prey relationships have evolved. Term, Meaning. Community, All the populations of all the different species that live together in a particular area. Interspecific interaction, Relationship between. The last three subtypes are classically defined as relationships exhibiting Examples of predation are owls that eat mice, and lions that eat gazelles. Other · University of Texas, Eric Pianka: Interspecific Competition · Encyclopedia of Earth.
Mutualism is a relationship between organisms in which both species benefit from the relationship they are in to. Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism benefit from the relationship while the other is harmed.
Competition is a relationship in which the two or more species are competing with each other to utilize the same limited resources that are necessary in order for them to survive. Predation is a kind of relationship in which one form of species serves as food to the other species. This involves a predator and prey relationship wherein specie is hunt by the other as food to eat.
Amensalism is a kind of relationship in which one population of specie is inhabited while the other population of specie is not affected.
Interspecific Competition: Definition, Examples, and Much More
Neutralism is a kind of relationship in which one population of specie does not affect the other. In everyday life, we sometimes use the term symbiosis to mean a relationship that benefits both parties. However, in ecologist-speak, symbiosis is a broader concept and can include close, lasting relationships with a variety of positive or negative effects on the participants.
For example, some types of fungi form mutualistic associations with plant roots. The plant can photosynthesize, and it provides the fungus with fixed carbon in the form of sugars and other organic molecules. The fungus has a network of threadlike structures called hyphae, which allow it to capture water and nutrients from the soil and provide them to the plant.
Photograph of an adult tapeworm.
Based on the ruler provided for scale, the tapeworm appears to be over 25 feet long! The brown structures are roots of Picea glauca, white spruce. The fuzzy white threads are the hyphae of a mutualistic fungus that interacts with the roots. For instance, many of the bacteria that inhabit our bodies seem to have a commensal relationship with us. They benefit by getting shelter and nutrients and have no obvious helpful or harmful effect on us.
It's worth noting that many apparent commensalisms actually turn out to be slightly mutualistic or slightly parasitic harmful to one party, see below when we look at them more closely. For instance, biologists are finding more and more evidence that our normal microbial inhabitants play a key role in health.
Some parasites cause familiar human diseases.
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For instance, if there is a tapeworm living in your intestine, you are the host and the tapeworm is the parasite—your presence enhances the tapeworm's quality of life, but not vice versa! Investigators sometimes mistakenly attribute the increase in abundance in the second species as evidence for resource competition between prey species.
It is "apparently" competition, but is in fact due to a shared predator, parasitoid, parasite, or pathogen. Consequences[ edit ] Many studies, including those cited previously, have shown major impacts on both individuals and populations from interspecific competition.
Documentation of these impacts has been found in species from every major branch of organism.
The effects of interspecific competition can also reach communities and can even influence the evolution of species as they adapt to avoid competition. This evolution may result in the exclusion of a species in the habitat, niche separationand local extinction.
The changes of these species over time can also change communities as other species must adapt. Gause's law The competitive exclusion principle, also called " Gause's law "  which arose from mathematical analysis and simple competition models states that two species that use the same limiting resource in the same way in the same space and time cannot coexist and must diverge from each other over time in order for the two species to coexist.
One species will often exhibit an advantage in resource use.
This superior competitor will out-compete the other with more efficient use of the limiting resource. As a result, the inferior competitor will suffer a decline in population over time.
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It will be excluded from the area and replaced by the superior competitor. A well-documented example of competitive exclusion was observed to occur between Dolly Varden charr Trout Salvelinus malma and white spotted char Trout S.
Both of these species were morphologically similar but the former species was found primarily at higher elevations than the latter.What are interspecific and intraspecific interactions - Biology for All - FuseSchool
Although there was a zone of overlap, each species excluded the other from its dominant region by becoming better adapted to its habitat over time. In some such cases, each species gets displaced into an exclusive segment of the original habitat. Because each species suffers from competition, natural selection favors the avoidance of competition in such a way. Niche differentiation Niche differentiation is a process by which competitive exclusion leads to differences in resource use.
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In the previous example, niche differentiation resulted in spatial displacement. In other cases it may result in other changes that also avoid competition. If competition avoidance is achievable, each species will occupy an edge of the niche and will become more specialized to that area thus minimizing competition.
This phenomenon often results in the separation of species over time as they become more specialized to their edge of the niche, called niche differentiation.