This creates a relationship between monetary policy and aggregate demand. Altering the money supply impacts where the aggregate demand curve is plotted . The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand. The fixed money supply is represented by a vertical supply curve. . aggregate-demand curve expresses this negative relationship between the. 1. monetary policy(MP) curve – indicates the relationship between real in- terest rate r the Chapter Aggregate Demand and Supply Analysis. Aggregate.
An increase in the income of the citizens will encourage them to spend more; eventually causing a rightward shift.
Foreign income also has a significant impact on the aggregate demand. When foreign income increases, exports will increase causing the curve to shift to the right as a result of increased aggregate demand. The framework ensures that neither demand nor supply side factors are overlooked in the analysis and that macroeconomic outcomes depend on the interaction between the different markets.
In terms of flexibility, it is comparable to IS-LM.
It can straightforwardly be extended to deal with stochastic shocks and open-economy issues. However, where this model does fail badly is in terms of accuracy.
Again the basic assumption concerning monetary policy is that the authorities fix the value of the money stock. There are other problems as well with the AD-AS model than the assumption of a fixed money stock. Colander pointed out that the model contains two contradictory accounts of aggregate supply.
In deriving the aggregate demand curve a fixed price multiplier theory is assumed while in deriving the aggregate supply curve the underlying assumption is one in which supply expands to the point at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue. Additionally, the declined money supply in the market also leads to reduced spending by the consumers which thus shifts the aggregate demand curve to the right.Aggregate Demand and Supply Unit: The Effect of Fiscal and Monetary Policy on AD
In the case of expansionary monetary policy, the central bank increases the money supply in the market by purchasing government bonds, and this pumps money into the market, and also decreases the interest rate as banks have more cash to loan to firms.
Thus, firms begin to invest in order to increase output i.
This leads to increase in employment. Additionally, as there is more money in the market, the consumer spending increases as well. All this activity shifts the aggregate demand curve to the left. As mentioned above, increase in the government spending shifts the AD curve to the right.
AD–AS model - Wikipedia
Reduced taxes mean the consumer has more dispensable income at hand, and so can purchase more. This as well shifts the AD curve to the right. Plus, a combination of both increased government spending and reduced taxes also works in shifting the AD curve to the right. The extent of the shift in the AD curve due to government spending depends on the size of the spending multiplier, while the shift in the AD curve in response to tax cuts depends on the size of the tax multiplier.
The "long-run" is the period after which factor prices are able to adjust accordingly. The short-run aggregate supply curve has an upward slope for the same reasons the Keynesian AS curve has one: The long-run aggregate supply curve is vertical because factor prices will have adjusted.
Factor prices increase if producing at a point beyond full employment output, shifting the short-run aggregate supply inwards so equilibrium occurs somewhere along full employment output. Monetarists have argued that demand-side expansionary policies favoured by Keynesian economists are solely inflationary. As the aggregate demand curve is shifted outward, the general price level increases. This increased price level causes households, or the owners of the factors of production to demand higher prices for their goods and services.
The consequence of this is increased production costs for firms, causing short-run aggregate demand to shift back inwards. The theoretical ultimate result is inflation. In the short run wages and other resource prices are sticky and slow to adjust to new price levels.
This gives way to the upward sloping SRAS.
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In the long-run, resource prices adjust to the price level bringing the economy back to a full employment output; along vertical LRAS. Any event that results in a change of production costs shifts the curves outwards or inwards if production costs are decreased or increased, respectively.
Some factors which affect short-run production costs include: These factors shift short-run curves exclusively.
Effectiveness of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy
Changes in the quantity and quality of labour and capital affect both long-run and short-run supply curves. A greater quantity of labour or capital corresponds to a lower price for both. A greater quality in labour or capital corresponds to a greater output per worker or machine.
The long-run aggregate supply curve of the classical model is affected by events that affect the potential output of the economy. Factors revolve around changes in the quality and quantity of factors of production. Fiscal and monetary policy under Classical and Keynesian cases[ edit ] Keynesian Case: If there is a fiscal expansion i. The shift would then imply an increase in the equilibrium output and employment. In the Classical case, the AS curve is vertical at the full employment level of output.
Firms will supply the equilibrium level of output whatever the price level may be. Now, the fiscal expansion shifts the AD curve rightwards, thus leading to an increase in the demand for goods, but the firms cannot increase the output as there is no labour force which can be obtained. As firms try to hire more labour, they bid up wages and their costs of production and thus they charge higher prices for the output. The increase in prices reduces the real money stock and leads to an increase in the interest rates and reduction in spending.