Interpersonal Communication: Part I and II: Finding Comfort with Dialectical Relationships
Predictability-Novelty: Feeling certain about the relationship, and needing to spice it up. the predictability-novelty dialectic constituted within the relationship. In its external manifestation A cross-cultural test of uncertainty reduction. Here's what kills passion and sex in marriage, and how to have a better sex life. Does Novelty or Predictability Make a Sex Life Better?. Of course, these traditional techniques are typically used as tools to test a dialectic tension between predictability and novelty (Baxter, ) that grows out of.
When babies have repeated adverse early experiences, they come to expect the behaviors and messages of others to be negative, and they start to perceive new experiences with others in a negative way.
In early brain growth, experience creates expectation, which alters perception. When children have positive early relationship experiences, they develop emotionally secure attachments with their caregivers that can buffer stress at various levels of intensity.
If stress is severe and persistent, it becomes toxic and the emotional buffers provided by secure relationships are crucially important Center on the Developing Child When children have to cope with tolerable less intense and temporary stress, emotionally secure relationships help children regulate their responses and, once the stress subsides, refocus on exploration and learning.
The brain builds crucial structures and pathways that serve as the foundation for future social, emotional, language, and intellectual functioning Schore ; Drury et al. Therefore, the relationships a child experiences each day and the environments in which those relationships play out are the building blocks of the brain. Simple, daily interactions have an enormous impact. For example, a caregiver who performs routines in a gentle way and uses language to help the child anticipate what will happen next teaches the child to learn about caring relationships and supports language development.
During this formative period it is critically important for caregivers to create a climate of care with healthy brain growth in mind. Simply stated, young children develop and function well when provided care in safe, interesting, and intimate settings where they establish and sustain secure and trusting relationships with knowledgeable caregivers who are responsive to their needs and interests Lally The infant brain is at once vulnerable and competent; both of these attributes need to be addressed simultaneously for healthy brain development.
The vulnerable baby is dependent on relationships with adults for physical survival, emotional security, a safe base for learning, help with self-regulation, modeling and mentoring social behavior, and information and exchanges about the workings of the world and rules for living. Yet at the same time, the baby comes into the world with great competence as a curious, motivated, self-starting learner—an imitator, interpreter, integrator, inventor, explorer, communicator, meaning seeker, and relationship builder.
Preconception and prenatal development When do caring relationships start to influence the development of the brain? Earlier than most of us think. Although this article primarily focuses on relationships established during the time period from birth to age 3, the developing brain before birth—and even before conception—deserves some attention.
Since many women become pregnant while in poor health or while engaging in unhealthy habits, the connection between preconception particularly from three months before conception to awareness of conception and healthy brain development needs to be addressed Atrash et al.
In addition to a public education campaign for all citizens about the preconception risks to the development of the brain, the United States should provide a safety net of preconception services to women of childbearing age and universal screening for depression and other mental health issues. Once conception occurs and brain development starts in the womb, the fetal environment may positively or negatively influence the developing brain.
Brain growth is more rapid during this period of life than any other, with neurons being produced at an astonishing rate.
Fetuses use information—such as the kind and amount of nutrients received, the stress experienced, and the languages and voices heard—to shape their brains and bodies to anticipate experiences once born. Just two-thirds of the way through pregnancy, a good portion of the basic wiring of the brain is already completed Thompson Birth to 9 months: Rather than passively receiving care, babies actively seek it out. They come into the world with physical skills and social competences that prepare them to play an active role in their development.
Based on the feedback babies receive from early exchanges, they direct attachment behaviors toward developing secure relationships with their primary caregivers. Research has shown that this attachment-seeking fits with the finding that during the first two years of brain development, emotional wiring is the dominant activity.
The brain builds crucial structures and pathways of emotional functioning that serve as the base for attachment, future emotional and social activity, and the language and intellectual development that will follow Schore In this earliest stage, babies start using messages from caregivers to develop perceptions of the extent to which they are loved.
Infants then use these perceptions to create an initial working model for how to engage with others.
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Thus, the care babies receive during these early exchanges directly affects the quality of attachment they form with their caregivers and influences the emotional stance they will take in interactions with others. Young babies need relationships with caregivers who are: Sensitive to their needs and messages Timely in responding especially to messages of distress Accurate in the reading of their cues Understanding of appropriate levels of stimulation Bornstein Seven to 18 months: Caring relationships and the brain during the exploration stage Between 7 and 18 months of age, babies are driven to search out their local environment, objects, and people; to build a primitive definition of self; and to test the strength and use of relationships.
Using their emerging motor skills to explore, they venture from the safety of the physical closeness of their caregivers and test the strength of relationships. Although babies can say only a few words, they come to understand many more Thompson The words they hear from adults stimulate the language development pathways in the brain.
After repeated exchanges with their caregivers, infants start to build a primitive sense of self. They come to expect: Fifteen to 36 months: This stage is also characterized by an explosion of brain growth in several areas of development in addition to the emotional development that was dominant earlier. The interpersonal context has unique characteristics. Communicators are in direct contact. Communication and feedback are immediate.
Communication is relatively unrehearsed and spontaneous. It is possible to distinguish dyadic and interpersonal communication. According to the developmental view, dyads begin impersonally and only become interpersonal over time.
Over time, the kinds of rules that govern interaction change. When rules reach the psychological level, communication is interpersonal. Cultural level rules are general rules we use with strangers. Sociological level rules are used within groups.
Test 2: INTERPERSNL COMMNCTN Flash Cards: Koofers
Psychological level rules are unique to a dyad. Interpersonal communication allows us to form dyadic relationships. Interpersonal dyads provide comfort and support.
Interpersonal dyads help us develop our identities. Interpersonal dyads allow us to maintain stable view of self over time. Special care must be taken to manage interpersonal relationships. Effective communicators find ways to balance three kinds of interpersonal tensions. In the expressive-protective dialectic, tension exists between the desire to disclose and the desire for privacy.
In the autonomy-togetherness dialectic, tensions exists between independence and interdependence. In the novelty-predictability dialectic, tension exists between stability and change. Dialectical tensions can be resolved in three ways. In dialectical emphasis, one extreme is chosen over others. In pseudo synthesis, couples unrealistically try to satisfy both dialectical needs at once.
In reaffirmation, people accept the fact that relationships move back and forth between opposing poles. Effective communicators recognize and avoid dysfunctional patterns. Role relations can give rise to dysfunctional communication. In complementary patterns, one partner is dominant while the other is passive. When partners feel trapped they experience rigid complementarity. Another potentially dysfunctional pattern is competitive symmetry, where both partners try to dominate. A final unhealthy pattern is submissive symmetry where neither is willing to exert any control.
In healthy dyads, role relations are flexible. Repeated use of disconfirming responses can be problematic. Disconfirmations are messages that make others feel rejected, undermining their self esteem. Examples of disconfirming responses are impervious, interrupting, irrelevant, tangential, impersonal, incoherent, and incongruous responses. Paradoxes are confusing and damaging. Paradoxes are contradictory double messages. When they occur repeatedly in important long-term relationships, they are called double binds.Interpersonal Communications Film "Marriage: Three Dialectical Tensions"
Negative spirals are also problematic patterns. Spirals are patterns in which each partner's behavior intensifies that of the other. One example is the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Interpersonal relationships often go through recognizable stages. Knapp's relational development model indicates the stages couples go through as their relationships develop and dissolve. As relationships develop, certain stages occur. In the initiating stage, partners try to create favorable impressions. In the experimenting stage, they use phatic communication to get to know one another.
In the intensifying stage, they become more involved and share more of themselves. In the integrating stage, they are now a couple, although they still use secret tests to determine the nature of their relationship.