Within nine years the Vikings had attacked and established their rule, or Danelaw , over the kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia, their former Anglo-Saxon. The great Viking terror: how Norse warriors conquered the Anglo-Saxons. Until AD , Viking raiders' modus operandi in the British Isles was. Most of the Anglo Saxon where Christians, whilst most ''vikings'' where pagans . used by some of the first Viking invaders to describe the view that met them.
Later, when Eric was killed in battle, the Vikings agreed to be ruled by England's king. The most powerful Anglo-Saxon king was Edgar. Welsh and Scottish rulers obeyed him as well as the English, and his court at Winchester was one of the most splendid in Europe.
Anglo-Saxon England reached its peak during Edgar's reign. Eric Bloodaxe was Jorvik's last king. He ruled the Viking Kingdom of Northumbria.
Who was King Cnut? In Viking times, a king had to be strong to fight and keep his land. In the early 11th century, England had a weak king. His name was Ethelred the Unready. Ethelred tried to stop the Vikings from invading by giving them gold and land. This money was called Danegeld. If that was the case, then the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle may be wrong in suggeting that Cerdic and his clan came to the future lands of Wessex as immigrant-invaders rather than a mixed tribe of Saxon-British heritage who established their own territorial dominance.
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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle would claim that Cerdic and his kin were the descendants of the Germanic god Woden Odin and the antidiluvian patriarchs of the Bible, though this is certainly a fabricated genealogy.
The West Saxon realm would in time include the Isle of Wight off the southern coast of England, which was itself previously colonized by Jutish tribesmen from Denmark and would, by the early Ninth Century CE, absorb the smaller eastern kingdoms of Kent, Sussex and Essex. Prior to the Viking Danelaw era, Wessex's main territorial rival was Mercia. During the Danelaw era, Wessex was the only Anglo-Saxon realm to successfully defeat numerous assaults from the Danes and would eventually conquer and unify England under the suzereinty of it's king Aethelstan during the early 10th century.
The historical capitals of Wessex were Winchester and Kingston-on-Thames. Northumbria "north of Humber" was formed from a union of two smaller Anglo-Saxon realms in the year CE during the reign of King Oswiu. The kingdoms had been previously unified under the leadership of the King Edwin CEwho became very powerful during his lifetime that he briefly extended his realm to include the Isle of Mann in the Irish Sea and the Welsh kingdoms of Elmet now West Riding of Yorkshire and Gwynedd northern Walesachieving the status of Bretwalda Anglo-Saxon: Edwin would convert to the Christian faith in CE, as part of the agreement he made to King Eadbald of Kent, then the most powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south, to marry his sister, Aethelburh.
Edwin's reign did much to shape the destiny of Northumbria, which despite losing it's preminence in the north as well as dominion over Mann and Gwynedd, would annex the Welsh kingdom of Rheged Cumbria and Lancashire under the reign of King Oswald CE who also permanently made the future realm of Northumbria into a Christian state.
The Angle Kingdom of Lindesege Lindseylocated in Lincolnshire, was also absorbed into Northumbria during the 7th century. Eoforwic York was the capital of Northumbria, and was also the second of the two Christian archdiocese in all of England, with St Paulinus, who converted King Edwin in CE, as it's first archbishop.
The formation of the Mercian kingdom is considered to be more obscure than the other Anglo-Saxon realms, as Mercia was the last kingdom to convert to Christianity.
BBC Bitesize - What happened to the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings?
The Mercians were largely derived from the Angle tribes that settled in western and central Britain amidst the native Britons. Their territory was mainly comprised of the modern regions of Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire. They would also absorb the Anglo-Saxon realm of Hwicce which dominated the lands of Worcestershire, Gloucestershire and part of Shropshire. Their name Mierce signified that they bordered the Celtic Welsh lands which remained unconquered by the Germanic Anglo-Saxons, whose lands were known by the Welsh as Lloegyr, or 'the lost lands'.
The traditional capital was the town of Tamworth in Staffordshire. King Croeda is believed to be the first ruler of Mercia. Croeda was the scion of a powerful Angle clan known as the Iclingas, which was founded by a chieftain called Icel, whose forbear was believed to be Woden. Mercia enjoyed a period of great power under kings such as Penda CEthe last Pagan ruler among the Anglo-Saxons, and King Offa CEwhom led Mercia before the rise of Wessex and the builder of Offa's Dyke, an earthern boundary to safeguard the realm of Mercia from Welsh raiders.
East Anglia or East Engla Rice Kingdom of the East Angles was formed during the 6th century CE from a union of the two Angle tribes of the Norfolk and the Suffolk, under the leadership of a royal clan known as the Wuffingas 'descendents of the wolf'.
The East Angle ruler Raedwald CEwho was powerful enough to be considered a Bretwalda in his own right, was the first of his nation to convert to Christianity and patronized the religion after it was renounced by the Kentish and Sussex rulers. Raedwald is also believed to be the subject of the famous Sutton Hoo burial.
Teaching Romans, Anglo-Saxons, and Vikings in Britain
The centre of power in East Anglia was Rendlesham. Kent, known as the Cantawara Rice or 'Kingdom of the Kent-people', was established by Jutish migrants sometime in the 5th century CE and was the very first of the so-called Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be established on British soil, as well as being the most powerful during the early phase of the Heptarchy era.
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The name Kent is believed to have originally derived from the ancient Celtic tribe, the Cantiaci in south-eastern England. Their homeland was known as the Civitas Cantium by the Romans.
According to legend, the warlord brothers Hengist and Horsa led a band of Jutish warriors to Britain to serve as mercenaries for the Romano-Brittonic ruler Vortigern, to protect his realm from marauding Picts and Irish. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that after the Jutish assisted Vortigern with his Pictish trouble, they sent word to their fellow chieftains among the Jutes and Angles that the Brittonic kingdoms were too weak to defend themselves and were ripe for the taking.
Teaching about the invaders: Even though you need only focus on one set of invaders, you will need to give the children an overview of the whole millennium. It is best to emphasise the differences between the invaders and to do a lot of pictorial timeline work. Key questions Why did the Romans invade Britain? Why did the Anglo-Saxons invade Britain? Why did the Vikings invade Britain?
The answers to these three questions are different What made the Romans so powerful? How and when did the invaders become Christians? What can archaeology tell us about the invaders?