From biggest to smallest, they are the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian, the But most of them—95 percent—are invertebrates, animals that don't have a called the rain forests of the sea because of the wide variety of animals found there. Estuaries are areas where rivers and oceans meet and have a mix of Wild Beats. Oct 4, ✭ Cape Point, the dividing point between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. And another photo of me!! Thanks for taking . The Gulf of Alaska, where two oceans meet, but do not mix! pic This is obviously not the gulf of Alaska, as there is only one ocean there. Well that's one way to get off the beaten path. The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the . Instead, in the IHO publication, the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans were The proposal for the name Southern Ocean won 18 votes, beating the is described as the point where the Indian and Southern Oceans meet.
When Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire discovered the southern extremity of Tierra del Fuego and named it Cape Horn inthey proved that the Tierra del Fuego archipelago was of small extent and not connected to the southern land, as previously thought.
Subsequently, inAbel Tasman showed that even New Holland Australia was separated by sea from any continuous southern continent. Portrait of Edmund Halley by Thomas Murrayc. InYves Joseph Kerguelen sailed from France with instructions to proceed south from Mauritius in search of "a very large continent.
He was sent out again to complete the exploration of the new land, and found it to be only an inhospitable island which he renamed the Isle of Desolation, but which was ultimately named after him. James Cook Famous official portrait of Captain James Cook who proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe.
Painting of James Weddell 's second expedition indepicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufroy. The obsession of the undiscovered continent culminated in the brain of Alexander Dalrymplethe brilliant and erratic hydrographer who was nominated by the Royal Society to command the Transit of Venus expedition to Tahiti in The command of the expedition was given by the admiralty to Captain James Cook. On 16 March, the approaching winter drove him northward for rest to New Zealand and the tropical islands of the Pacific.
This point, reached on 30 Januarywas the farthest south attained in the 18th century. With a great detour to the east, almost to the coast of South America, the expedition regained Tahiti for refreshment. He thereby laid open the way for future Antarctic exploration by exploding the myth of a habitable southern continent.
Cook's most southerly discovery of land lay on the temperate side of the 60th paralleland he convinced himself that if land lay farther south it was practically inaccessible and without economic value. In a voyage from toJames Weddell commanded the ton brig Jane, accompanied by his second ship Beaufoy captained by Matthew Brisbane.
Southern Ocean - Wikipedia
Together they sailed to the South Orkneys where sealing proved disappointing. They turned south in the hope of finding a better sealing ground.
A few icebergs were sighted but there was still no sight of land, leading Weddell to theorize that the sea continued as far as the South Pole.
I was also instructed to make a less-than-authentic headband with Indian designs and feathers to complete this outfit. Looking back, I now know this was wrong. The Thanksgiving Indian costume that all the other children and I made in my elementary classroom trivialized and degraded the descendants of the proud Wampanoags, whose ancestors attended the first Thanksgiving popularized in American culture.
The costumes we wore bore no resemblance to Wampanoag clothing of that time period.
Among the Wampanoag, and other American Indians, the wearing of feathers has significance. The Thanksgiving myth has done so much damage and harm to the cultural self-esteem of generations of Indian people, including myself, by perpetuating negative and harmful images to both young Indian and non-Indian minds. There are so many things wrong with the happy celebration that takes place in elementary schools and its association to American Indian culture; compromised integrity, stereotyping, and cultural misappropriation are three examples.
When children are young, they are often exposed to antiquated images of American Indians through cartoons, books, and movies. But Thanksgiving re-enactments may be their most active personal encounter with Indian America, however poorly imagined, and many American children associate Thanksgiving actions and images with Indian culture for the rest of their lives.
These cultural misunderstandings and stereotypical images perpetuate historical inaccuracy. Tolerance of mockery by teachers is a great concern to Native parents.
Much harm has been done to generations of Indian people by perpetuating negative and harmful images in young minds. Presenting Thanksgiving to children as primarily a happy time trivializes our shared history and teaches a half-truth. And while I agree that elementary-school children who celebrate the first Thanksgiving in their classrooms are too young to hear the truth, educators need to share Thanksgiving facts in all American schools sometime before high school graduation.
Aroundwhen he was perhaps 30, Squanto was kidnapped along with others of his people and taken across the Atlantic Ocean to Malaga, Spain, where they were sold into slavery. Monks in Spain bought Squanto, shared their faith with him, and made it possible for him to find his way to England in In England he worked for shipbuilder John Slany and became proficient in English. In Squanto returned to his homeland by joining an exploring expedition along the New England coast.
When he arrived at the village where he has been raised, all his family and the rest of his tribe had been exterminated by a devastating plague. What about the Pilgrims? Separatists who fled from England to Holland seeking to escape religious persecution by English authorities, and who later booked passage to North America, are now called "Pilgrims," though Americans did not widely use the term until the s.
In November,the Mayflower dropped anchor in present-day Provincetown Harbor. Within the first year, half of the Pilgrims who set out from Europe on the Mayflower had perished. In desperation the Pilgrims initially survived by eating corn from abandoned fields, raiding villages for stored food and seed, and robbing graves at Corn Hill.
Squanto was introduced to the Pilgrims in the spring ofbecame friends with them, and taught them how to hunt and fish in order to survive in New England. He taught the Pilgrims how to plant corn by using fish as fertilizer and how to plant gourds around the corn so that the vines could climb the cornstalks. Due to his knowledge of English, the Pilgrims made Squanto an interpreter and emissary between the English and Wampanoag Confederacy.
What really happened at the first Thanksgiving in ?
The Pilgrims did not introduce the concept of thanksgiving; the New England tribes already had autumn harvest feasts of thanksgiving. To the original people of this continent, each day is a day of thanksgiving to the Creator.
In the fall ofWilliam Bradford, the governor of the Plymouth Colony, decided to have a Plymouth harvest feast of thanksgiving and invited Massasoit, the Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Federation, to join the Pilgrims. Massasoit came with approximately 90 warriors and brought food to add to the feast, including venison, lobster, fish, wild fowl, clams, oysters, eel, corn, squash and maple syrup.
Massasoit and the ninety warriors stayed in Plymouth for three days. These original Thanksgiving foods are far different from the meals prepared in modern Thanksgiving celebrations. Squanto died inbut Massasoit outlived the era of relative peace in colonial New England.
Colonial authorities found justification to kill most of the Pequot men and enslave the captured women and their children. Pequot slaves were sent to Bermuda and the West Indies. In the official number of Pequot people living in Connecticut was Similar declines in Native population took place throughout New England as an estimated three hundred thousand Indians died by violence, and even more were displaced, in New England over the next few decades.
Looking at this history raises a question: Why should Native peoples celebrate Thanksgiving? Many Natives particularly in the New England area remember this attempted genocide as a factual part of their history and are reminded each year during the modern Thanksgiving. They gather at the feet of a statue of Grand Sachem Massasoit of the Wampanoag to remember and reflect in the hope that America will never forget. Do I celebrate Thanksgiving?
But I do take advantage of the holiday and get together with family and friends to share a large meal without once thinking of the Thanksgiving in I think it is the same in many Native households.
I turn to the Internet to find out what Native people think of Thanksgiving. A few of the responses I have received over the years, beginning with the most recent and ending with comments from when I unfortunately didn't note where people were writing from: Thanksgiving was a blending of two different cultures, one culture helping another to survive. The historical knowledge we have now of what was actually taking place may not be the same as what was being experienced in those days.
Our assessment now may not be fair because of all that the Native people have endured. Being the only Native American classroom teacher at a public school, raised mostly in an urban setting steeped heavy in traditional American holidays, and around many other native people on weekends while traveling to dance, this has always been a challenging question for me that I cannot claim to know the answer for. I see many other teachers I work with who are not native struggle with knowing how to address the issue comfortably.Atlantic and pacific ocean meet at the point
I have to say, I have fear that if we avoid the issue altogether, Native people will be forgotten about. I have seen some teachers decide to stop teaching about Native Americans for fear of offending.
I personally get sad when I see that happen. I know Thanksgiving is a controversial subject, and there are so many viewpoints. I share the modern theme of Thanksgiving, which I think has good intentions—family and community. I have also chosen to teach about Native American culture, even more heavily in November because of Thanksgiving, even though it is no longer a part of the curriculum.
I have found ways to integrate it while teaching something that I think is important. I do an assembly for the students in which we dance, and I emphasize how it is not possible to teach everything there is to know about Native Americans in just one assembly.
I emphasize the diversity among native people. Regardless of all the political views of Thanksgiving, we can all find something to be thankful for! Except for the last four years, the twenty years before that I spent 95 percent of my Thanksgivings at the table of my brother-in-law. Our gatherings were about giving thanks for what we had. As for Native American history being left out of teaching, it is an outrage. Educate our fellow educators on how to teach it.
It would be a great way to help others teach courses and show how to respect the culture. We have family members with addiction issues. The kids get to eat, which my mom loves.
And we are thankful not only to survive colonization, but also grateful to feed family. We celebrate and give thanks for our loved ones' being able to be together again. But when my daughter was young and the realization hit, as it does all young American Indians, she said to me"Do you think we should have helped them?